KHOSROV FOREST state reserve

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Climate and Water

Climate of Khosrov Reserve is mostly arid and continental, with the extreme air temperatures being recorded in summer and winter.

Arid continental climate embraces the foothill area of elevations from 900 to 1300 m. Mean annual precipitation is 350-450 mm. Winter is quite mild, with occasionally laid stable snow cover and mean January air temperature ca. -4oC. Spring and autumn are short and humid. Summer is long and arid, droughts are fairly common.

Moderately arid climate is usual in middle evelations of 1400-2000 m. Winter is characterized by stable snow cover lasting from November to March, mean January air temperatures are -5-7oC (down to -30oC). Spring is humid and long, with frequent frosts. Summer is warm, dry and sunny. Autumn is warm, but humid from October. Mean annual precipitation is 500-600 mm.

Moderately cold climate covers elevations of 2000-2500 m. Winter is harsh, mean January air temperature is -8-12oC (down to -42oC). Spring is cold and long, frosts end late in May. Summer is short, cool and humid. Autumn is short, with frosts starting already in September. Mean annual precipitation is 800 mm.

Dense river network has been a result of favorable climatic conditions and abundance of aquiferous strata associated with cracks in lava belts. There are many freshwater and mineral springs spurting from the underground with constant regime. Wetlands and lakes are scarce.

Water courses are represented by the two fast mountain rivers, Azat and Vedi with their tributaries, originating in the Geghama Ridge and flowing southwestwards. They shape the deep, down to 500 m, V-like canyons. Both rivers are full-water and swelling in April-May during the snowmelt. They are fed equally by snow, precipitation and underground water, in summer are used for irrigation.

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